Jan.  12, 1977

1017th Meeting

The 1017th meeting of the Society was brought to order by Pres. Boyd at 8:07 P.M. in the John Wesley Powell Auditorium.  There was some minor mechanical problem with the beer dispensary, after which the minutes of the 1016th meeting were approved as amended.  The following guests were introduced: Walter Farham, U.S.  State Dept.; Don Swanson, U.S.G.S., Menlo Park, CA; Benton Clark, Martin Marietta Corp.; Brian Partika, Stuart Holler, and Steven Aitken, all of JHU. Elected to membership by the Council on Jan.  12 were Lynn Coleman, U.S.G.S., Russell Graham, Smithsonian, Jeffrey Hedenquiist, JHU, and George Sellers, U.S.G.S.  Tina Zen, sounding every bit like an old C&O Canal pitchman, urged the membership to purchase the valuable guidebooks which are still on sale.  Not to be outdone by a mere scientific society, Bevan French then made a pitch for one of NASA's new publishing ventures: "What's New On the Moon?" This is a well illustrated summary of the current knowledge of the moon, especially as obtained from the lunar samples.

President Boyd announced the following committee chairmen: Blair F. Jones, Program Committee; David B. Stewart, Nominating Committee; J. Stephen Huebner, Finance Committee; Mary E. Mrose, Membership Committee; and Bruce R.  Lipin, Public Service Committee.  It appears that the paleontologists have been overwhelmed by the faceless geochemists.

There being no informal communications, Byron D. Stone, U.S.G.S., Reston, presented his paper, "Soft sediment deformation structures in glacial deposits." In a well illustrated talk, Stone demonstrated that penecontemporaneous deformation is a common feature in sediments accumulating in shallow water near glacial activity.  We were exposed to fault related fracture cleavage, horst and graben structure, normal faulting, ductile deformation adjacent to fault breccia, reversed faults in down-dropped beds, development of symmetric and asymmetric folds with lineations parallel to the fold hinge, dikes, ptygmatic folds, pull apart structures, and "flame" structures related to dewatering.  Ending with a photo of the testicle formation, the audience was asked, "How many deformations do you see?" Questions by Zen, Freeborn, Boyd, Fiske, French, and Epstein forced Stone to reveal that glacial stratigraphy established that this deformation took place under eighty feet of water and that "Ice melts every day without an earthquake” A warning from this talk:


Ten minutes of Stone's peroration:

An exhibit of soft deformation

Young folds and a fault

Could bring to a halt

Long years of hard rock speculation.


After revealing that he admired Thomas Mann as the author of Der Zauberberg, four petrologists, two of whom were in the audience, and Leon Trotsky, John Hower, N.S.F., delivered a paper, "Back to Van Hise: metamorphism of pelitic rocks at lower grades than J. B. Thompson ever thought of." This admirable delivery demonstrated that these pelites are metamor­phosed through the general reaction: Smectite + K-feldspar (K-mica) = illite + chlorite + quartz + water.  Through a careful analysis of well washed well cuttings, Hower showed how this reaction manifested itself through the loss of H2O, Ca, CO2, and Na from the sediments, an increase in the amount of illite in the sediments, a loss of K-feldspar in the sediments, an increase in the chlorite content, an irregular loss of calcite that is related to grain size, and changes in the mineralogy and composition of the less than one micron fraction of the sample.  All of these changes take place with depth and are closely related to increases in temperature and fluid pressure.  The latter changes from near hydrostatic to slightly less than lithostatic through step increases which correspond to the mineralogical changes observed at depth.  Oxygen isotopes of the several minerals equilibrate at temperatures above 100°C.  The K/Ar age dating method yield lower ages with depth and record the time of metamorphisrn rather than either the time of deposition or formation of the clays.  The reactions to form clays, and the formation of hydro­carbons from organic material are both kinetically controlled and are dependent on temperature.  The metamorphism of the sediments is a major factor in the production of commercial deposits of petroleum.  Questioned by Wones, Thompson, K. Y. Lee, Peck, Ross, Robertson, Stewart, Zen, Casadevall (twice), Towe and Force, Hower revealed methods of clay preparation, the identifica­tion of the second petrologist whom he admired, and when Robin Brett asked if a new clay mineral would be called a Trotskyite, D. B. Stewart replied, "Only the Common form." To summarize:


Shale's often converted to phyllite

As smectite's converted to illite

Near Der Zauberberg lies

Jim Thompson, Van Hise

Who delight in the phyllite of illite.


The final speaker of the evening, J. B. Thompson, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, told the society about "Biopyroboles: polysomes and polytypes," Thompson, laboring under the three jolts of 1) a thirty minute time limit, 2) an admonition to only use familiar words and 3) the title of the previous talk, explained that biopyroboles was a term coined by Albert Johannsen for students who could not identify pyroxene, amphibole, and biotite in the field.  Polytypes of these minerals are the forms resulting from simple geometric arrangements of the elemental structural units, whereas polysomes are the results of changes in both composition and geometry.  Thompson led the society on a vicarious excursion through strips of biotite and pyroxene, which, when combined, make amphibole.  Various other minerals have been predicted, have been found, and have been reported on at the 1976 Annual G.S.A. Meeting by David Veblen of Harvard.  Thompson provided elegant methods for showing the compositional relations between biopyroboles in easily visualized graphical methods.  Using a long-necked duck as a motif, Thompson finished with a suggestion that arnphiboles may have more complications than John Hower ever thought of.  Questions by Wones, Hazen, Zen, Hower, Ross, Sato, Robertson, French and Toulmin were answered by Thompson in a multichannel voice reminiscent of early Les Paul records.  Thompson adroitly ducked Wones' suggestion that the motif was a goose.  As one could wish:


Polysomes, Polytypes play a role

In producing a new amphibole.

To try some new twists

And find it exists

Is the Cantabridgian's goal.


President Boyd adjourned the meeting at 10:10 P.M.  Attendance: 110.

Respectfully submitted,

David R.  Wones, Secretary



January 26, 1977

1018th Meeting

The 1018th meeting of the Society was brought to order by Pres. Boyd at 8:00 P.M. in the John Wesley Powell Auditorium.  Robert Morris, U.S.G.S., Denver, and Jaime Villalobos, Bolivian Ministry of Mines and Metallurgy, were introduced as guests.  The minutes of the 1017th meeting were approved as read.

Using a computer printout, reportedly to be from the Honeywell Multics System and supposedly containing a large number of testimonials, Tina Zen again urged the members and guests of the Society to buy the invaluable Guidebooks published by the Society.

E-an Zen noted that George Cohee is retiring from the U.S.  Geological Survey.  George has held many offices within the Society, including President, and most recently has served on the Finance Committee.  We are grateful to George for his many services to the Society.

President Boyd announced that the members of the Program Committee are Blair Jones, Chairman, Dan Appleman, Robin Brett, Bruce Hanshaw, John Hower, and Ken Towe.

There being no informal communications, George E. Ericksen, U.S.G.S., Reston, led the Society on a tour of the Salars in southwestern Bolivia by means of his talk "Lithium-rich Brines in Southwestern Bolivia." Touting the Salar de Uyuni as the largest (7000 km2) flat area on the earth, Ericksen admitted that it was actually only part of an ellipsoidal surface with but 2 mm relief and decorated with dessication polyhedra.  This Salar is the final accumulation of a Pleistocene lake.  The potential need for lithium in future energy storage and conversion systems prompted Ericksen and his co-workers to work with the Bolivian government in this exploration enterprise.  An adapted gasoline powered hand drill equipped with a 50 cm core sampled the brines found within the interstices of the salt crust.  These contain more than 300 mg Li per liter.  Presumably the Li content of the lacustrine sediments beneath the brine will be higher.  Of potentially greater importance is the high potassium contents of the salars, which increase the world's potash resources which are important to agriculture.  Questions by Boyd, Chayes, Howard, Sato, Arth, and Tracey, provided Ericksen with"the opportunity-to describe distince layering in the salts, to indicate that the Li and K were derived from local volcanic rocks, and that exploitation would be relatively easy.  Thayer and Villalobos both commented that Ericksen's experience in Chile and his recognition of the need for an Li resource led to the discovery of this remarkable deposit.


'Neath Bolivia's bright southern star

Ericksen drilled into the salar.

The reserves are not puny

Li, K, from Uyuni

Will energize you and your car.


Nicholas T. Arndt, Geophysical Laboratory, gave the society an intro­duction into komatiites, the ultramafic lava flows characterized by the so called spinifex texture.  The texture of these flows is dominated by dendri­tic olivine crystals, similar in appearance to the spinifex grass of Australia.  Arndt showed photos, thin sections, geologic sections, and chemical analyses of komatiite flows observed in Munroe township, in the Timmons-Kirkland Lake area of Ontario.  The flows have cumulates at the base, spinifex dominated cores, and chilled tops.  A CaO-MgO~Al2O3 projection shows that the chemical variations within the flow are dominated by variations in olivine content.  Worldwide these rocks possess the following characteristics: 1) they are volcanic; 2) they possess spinifex texture; 3} they have high Mg/Fe ratios; and 4) the ultramafic varieties are found in the Archaen, although mafic varieties may be younger.  Their association with Ni sulfides provides them with an economic interest.  They are potentially one of our best looks at the geochemistry of the Archean mantle of the Earth.  Questions by George Helz (2), Foose, Boyd (3), Thayer, Milton, Fiske, Wones, Brett, Zen, Sato, Hearn, and K. Y. Lee prompted Arndt to explain that the liquidus temperatures of these flows are between 1550° and 1650°C, they are volatile free, and have been subjected to low grade metamorphism.  Bowen's logic that most ultramafic were cumulates probably caused most early reports of ultramafic lavas to be viewed with skepticism.


These olivine rich lava flows

They deny N. L. Bowen's prose

With rocks spinifexed

Arndt can now spin a text

Of Archean and older heat flows.


"World Energy Trends" was delivered by Philip H. Abelson, using a mixture of graphs, tables and oral rhetoric.  Commenting on how all major cities of the world have similar quantities of cars and air pollution, and citing Brasilia as an example, Abelson indicated that cheap oil has been the key to Post World War II economic growth.  From 1850 to the present, energy production has moved from a mixture of wood and water to natural gas, oil, and coal.  Arabia dominates oil, but U.S.S.R., U.S.A. and China have sufficient coal reserves to have world wide dominance in total fossil fuel resources.  42 countries now use nuclear reactors.  224 reactors for the U.S. will provide only 7% of our total energy use.  Nuclear energy can only provide electricity, so Abelson suggests that a move will be made toward Solar Energy through biomass systems.  Questioned by Freeborn, Sato, Clark, Chayes, Boyd, Yochelson, Lucy Force, Christian, Roedder, Thayer, Brett, E-an Zen, and Robertson, Abelson sug­gested that inertia has prevented us from developing new sources of energy.  Agricultural research has promoted plants with high protein content for nutri­tion, whereas for fuel purposes it would be desirable to have fast growing plants with high carbohydrate content.  Reminding the audience that as a boy he used 3% of the energy he now uses, Abelson suggested that the current cold wave, if it lasts another six to eight weeks, would help get things moving.  Asked if he believed Exxon Corporation's projections of petroleum reserves, Abelson replied, "Why did Mobil Oil buy Montgomery Ward?"


We're depleting our oil and our gas

Fusion power may ne'er come to pass

Coal could be a mess

Atomic no less

Phil tells us to use biomass.


President Boyd adjourned the meeting at 10:00 p.m.  Attendance: 104

Respectfully submitted.

David R. Wones

Meeting Secretary



February 9, 1977

1019th Meeting

President Boyd called the meeting to order at 8:00 p.m. with some difficulty.  Bill Abbott, South Carolina Geol. Survey, and David Schindel, Harvard Univ., were introduced to the Society.  The minutes of the 1018th meeting were approved as read.  Robert M. Hazen, Geophysical Laboratory, has been elected a member of the Society.  A call for volunteers to work at the AAPG-SEPM meeting was made.  In return for working 12 hours in the Registration, Information, or Hospitality areas, the volunteers would receive registration at the meeting.  Bruce Lipin, Chairman, Public Service Committee, announced that field trips would be held on April 2 (Cretaceous and Tertiary Faulting) and May 7 (Environmental Geology of Fairfax County).  In the fall a field trip will be made to the Baltimore Gabbro.

The first informal communication of the year was made by Roy Clarke of the U.S. National Museum on "The Louisville Meteorite." This observed fall occurred at 3:30 p.m. on Jan. 31, 1977.  Fragments of the meteorite were found by a roofer repairing damage to a house.  Other fragments damaged a car and warehouse.  Graham Hunt, Univ. of Louisville, identified the object on the 5:00 news at a local TV station.  With so many fragments striking man-made objects, it is thought that more material is out there buried in the snow.  The meteorite is an olivine-bronzite chondrite with exceptional shock veins.  Questions by Boyd, Jacobeen, Toulmin, and Morris revealed that it fragmented upon impact with the atmosphere.  Hanshaw's question about insurance coverage went unanswered.


An explosion went off in the air,

The professor just shrugged in his chair.

He was very lucky

To be in Kentucky

And see the chondrite on the air.


Ellis Yochelson, on the 50th anniversary of the death of the Geological Society of Washington's first president, presented his paper, "C. D. Walcott, Mar. 8, 1850, to Feb. 9, 1927: First President of Geol. Soc. of Washington." After problems with the slide projector were resolved, Yochelson, aided by illustrations of gravestones, millstones, and fossiliferous stones, as well as grand vistas of the east and the west, and revealing portraits of the leading characters, sketched out the essential details of Walcott's career as a paleontologist-geologist.  With­out the credentials of a high school or college diploma, this scion of a New York mercantile family began his career in Herkimer County, N.Y., collaborating with W. P. Rust, a local "farmer and geologist." After an association with James Hall at the Albany Museum, Walcott became Employee No. 14 of the U.S. Geological Survey.  He worked on the Cambrian-Precambrian sections of the Grand Canyon, and the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sections in Antelope Valley, Nevada.  When not producing his monumental paleontological and stratigraphic studies, Walcott found time to be the first president of G.S.W., the 3rd director of the U.S.G.S. and the 4th secretary of the Smithsonian.  Overcoming personal vicissitudes, Walcott left a legacy of work that has been the foundation of much contemporary work.  Discussion by Boyd (2), Appleman, and Tracey revealed Yochelson's proprietary interest in Walcott's life, times, and work.


Excellent Fossil collections

Unraveled Cambrian sections

From Canadian Creek

To Canadian Peak

Walcott gave us directions.


Continuing the Walcott story, F. J. Collier of the Smithsonian provided the Society with a look at "Walcott's Burgess shale fauna: Old and New Assessments." Using original photographs of Walcott's assault on the Burgess shale locality, as well as contemporary photographs from both land and air, Collier gave us a real appreciation of the remarkable accomplishment Walcott's collection represents.  The shale is an aerobic deposit preserved between two submarine fans.  We were shown the contrast between old and new methods of fossil preparation, and the unique information on soft parts of fauna that would have been unknown, save for this remarkable locality.  Collier arranged for specimens of the Burgess shale to be exhibited during the meeting, an action much appreciated by those who were present.  Discussion by Nelson, Yochelson, and McKelvey.  George Helz asked if any chemistry had been done on this material by geochemists, to which Collier replied, "We wouldn't let geo-chemists touch them!"


Walcott's urges uncovered the Burgess

Where surges, the sediment merges

A tale in the shale

Assailed on the trail

Of the scourges of annelid purges.


Citing C. D. Walcott as an example of the scientific method, E. C. Robertson explained to the Society "Earthquake forecasting from laboratory speculation." Showing graphic evidence of the need for better earthquake forecasts, Robertson summarized the methods based on seismic wave propagation.  Early Russian work had demonstrated a decrease followed by an abrupt increase in the ratio of compressive velocity to shear velocity of seismic waves in rocks adjacent to faults preceding earthquakes.  Laboratory measurements of stress-strain relationships have led to models based on dilatancy due to the development of microcracks and dialtancy due to abnormal fluid pressure.  Robertson favors a two failure model.  Rocks along the fault can deform by creep until an irregularity in the fault surface causes an increase in stress, which leads to brittle fracture.  When creep does not take place, the cracks remain sealed, and eventually fracture occurs.  Robertson urges the observation of changes in the confining pressure for small areas along active faults.  Questions by Peck (2), and Wentworth (2), Jacobeen, and Reed.


Gene changed Vp and Vs

By squeezing rocks in a press.

The opening of cracks

Fit in with the facts

Of strain related to stress.


President Boyd adjourned the meeting at 9:50 p.m.  Attendance 88.  Beer collection $41.05.

Respectfully submitted,

David R. Wones

Meeting Secretary



February 23, 1977

1020th Meeting

President Boyd called the meeting to order at 8:10 p.m., sans microphone.  Alexander McBirney and Dave Tushantz were introduced as guests.  The minutes of the 1019th meeting were approved as amended.  Steven Atkin, Pembroke Hart, Tim Ungrady and Issac Winograd have been elected members of the Society.  Doug Kinney announced the AAPG meeting and distributed circulars, also pleading for volunteers.

Tina Zen, carrying an armload of C&O canal guidebooks, gave an informal communciation "Development of Peat in Dade County, Florida." Zen and Altschuler are investigating the correlation of peat with habitat in the northern ever­glades.  Working with cores and a microscope they have developed a section across Southern Florida in which basement is defined as the Miami oolite.  Saw grass marshes contrast against the ponds and sloughs.  Calcium carbonate precipitation by algae leads to the development of marl, which tends to be mixed with the peat.  Questions by George Helz, Hower, Peck, Toulinin, Jones, Hewitt revealed that marl deposits are sporadic and do not form in all ponds.  President Boyd asked whether the peats showed lower temperatures than John Hower's gulf coast shales.  Zen replied, "Buy a Guidebook".


Marshes greet sloughs and ponds in the heat

Tina's feet are found there in the peat.

With a long enough rope

And a good microscope

She'll complete the formation of peat.


Carl Koteff, USGS, Reston, presented the first formal talk of the evening, "Post glacial uplift in the northeastern United States".  The detailed stratigraphy of glacial lake sediments provides a determination of the water level within glacial lakes.  Careful leveling of this horizon in the present day permits estimates of differential uplift after the Wisconsin glaciation in the New England states.  Comparisons with areas in arctic Canada and the Baltic reveals that the rate of rebounding is slower in New England.  At least one hundred twenty meters of uplift have occurred and along Lake Champlair 75 cm/km have been measured.  Although the glacial lakes lay across major tectonic boundaries in the New England bedrock, no hinge lines have been de­tected in the New England area.  Koteff hoped it had been an uplifting exper­ience for the Society.  Questions by Hatch, Rumble, Stewart, Peck, Zen, Dinny, and Boyd.


Where Wisconsin ice came to a halt

Carl leveled, on beds, an assault

No sign of a hinge

Where deltas impinge

On an ancient plate boundary fault.


"Oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies of the Cordilleran batholiths in western North America" was presented by Mordecai Margaritz, D.T.M.  Using these isotopes, Margaritz and his colleague at C.I.T., Hugh Taylor, investi­gated the amount of exchange between meteoric waters and the rocks of these batholiths.  Regional isotopic variations in rain water are reflected in the rocks of the batholiths.  Tertiary intrusives have acted as heat sources to drive convective systems tens of kilometers in diameter.  Isotopic exchange takes place during convection.  Hydrogen exchange in biotite and hornblende is a faster process than the exchange phenomenon.  Questions by Hower, Davis, Hewitt, E-an Zen (2), Helz, Roedder, Peck, Hemley, Jones and Rumble revealed that batholiths lying below the zone of permeability remain unaffected and that Vancouver Island remains a major anomalous region.  Rumble suggested that the Karmudsen Volcanics on Vancouver Island had exchanged with sea water.


Isotopic determinations

By Margaritz sought the locations

In Cordilleran mountains

Where tertiary fountains

Promoted H/D variations.


The final talk of the evening, "Trace elements in suspended phases in water: implications for sample handling procedures" was given by Sally Harrison, N.B.S.  Ms. Harrison explained the many problems in obtaining a sample of natural polluted water which was not altered by the collection or storage procedures.  Using teflon coated devices during all sampling procedures, residues of freeze dried samples are analyzed by instrumental neutron activation.  By running blanks during the analysis, Harrison has demonstrated that trace elements in water often occur absorbed on particles which pass through a .45 μm filter.  Giving rational explanations such as incoming tides to explain most of her data, Harrison left the audience to ponder on an anomalously low Cl value collected in Laurel, Maryland.  Questions by Hewitt, Hemley, French, Jones (3), Roedder, Boyd, and Hower left a strong impression that E.P.A. should ask Harrison to give a seminar on problems of water analysis.


By using a neutron reaction

To measure a freeze dried extraction

Sally found that the tide

Could not be denied

Or e'en the particulate fraction.


The Meeting was adjourned at 10:08.  Attendance: 64.

David R. Wones

Meeting Secretary



1021st Meeting

March 9, 1977

President Boyd brought the meeting to order at 8:01 P.M.  Even with a relatively small crowd, presumably due to the siege of the IslamicCenter up the street, there was some difficulty bringing the meeting to order.  Fred Larsen, Norwich Univ., and Dan Milton, U.S.G.S., Menlo Park were introduced as guests.  The minutes of the 1020th meeting required signifi­cant revision by Boyd and Koteff.  Dan Appleman requested higher standards of verse.  President Boyd announced the forthcoming society field trips.  Tina Zen did not push the sale of Guidebooks.

Bruce Hanshaw presented the opening talk of the evening, "Paleoclimatic Implications of subglacially precipitated calcites from Glacier National Park." After thinking, and introducing his family of field assistants, Hanshaw credited his coworkers, Bernard Hallet and Tyler Copeland, for their cooperation in the field and laboratory work.  He showed a photo­graph of stromatolites on which could be seen both a calcite precipitate and a faceless poleontologist.  Hanshaw at this point regaled the society:


"Paleontologists in their museums palacial

Give no samples to geochemists nonfacial

They think all is organic

They surely will panic

When they find that the calcite's subglacial.


Taking the meeting on a worldwide tour of glaciers which had flowed over bedrock rich in calcium, Hanshaw showed the remarkable encrustations of fluted calcite which Hallet had demonstrated formed by precipitation of freezing water under the sole of the glacier.  The Hanshaw family mounted an expedition to Glacier National Park where they collected ice, calcite, and bedrock.  Oxygen isotopic analysis coupled with mass balance demonstrated that the calcite formed from subglacial water.  Extrapolating these results to the forams of the pleistocene Hanshaw suggested that the variations in oxygen isotope composition of forams, so carefully demon­strated by Emiliani, are not a function of a temperature change in seawater, but rather reflect the change in the isotopic composition of sea water due to the storage of light oxygen in the glaciers.  Questions by Tracey (3), E-an Zen (3), Hover, C. S. Zen (2), Dutro (2), Boyd (2), Krohn, Hatch, Deike, Koteff, Toulmin, were mainly on the causes of the fluting of the calcites.


"High up the Hanshaws all go

Where glaciers o'er carbonates flow,

The sole water freezes

Forms calcite which eases

The climates in which forams grow.


John Ferry, Geophysical Laboratory, demonstrated how postmagmatic interaction between granitic plutons near Augusta, Maine, and regional fluids created isograds common to the plutons and their surrounding country rocks.  His paper, "Fluid interaction between granite and sediment during metamorphism" applied the principle of Le Chatelier to the reactions:

Calcite + anorthite + water = zoisite + CO2

anorthite + microcline + H2O = muscovite + zoisite + quartz

anorthite + microcline + H2O + CO2 = muscovite + calcite + quartz

Ferry demonstrated that the use of the two feldspar geothermometer yielded 420°C and coincided well with the intersection of the several reactions at 3500 bars and 425°C.  Ferry concluded that the local fluids were all consumed at this temperature.  He then postulated the circulation of fluids during the metamorphism and cooling of the plutons.  Questions by Freeborn, Wones (2), Toulmin (2), E-an Zen (2), Hower, Jones, Boyd, and Wright revealed that the presence of clay minerals in granites may be a metamorphic rather than weathering event.


"The maxim of Le Chatelier

Was brought, by Ferry, to weight

On the transfer of gasses

Through igneous masses

And the reactions that ended in clay


The final talk of the evening, "Complex Chemistry of transition elements in manganese nodules," was presented by Roger Burns of M.I.T.  Burns brought a miniexhibit of these nodules and after giving a general review of their location and distribution, showed the society the difficulties of working on the crystal chemistry of transition metals in such minerals as todorokite, birnessite, δ-MnO2, "ferrihydrates," geothite.  A combination of electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and chemical bond theory suggest that these nodules are combinations of several manganese and iron oxides with substi­tuted cobalt, copper, and nickel.  The transition metals are bonded to chelates and through oxidation of the organic molecule by ferric iron com­plexes, are then precipitated and incorporated into the nodule.  Burns reported that the growth rates of the nodules are about 1 mm per million years, and that they grow at the sediment water interface with the growth on the lower side.  Activity by benthonic organisms turns them over periodically.  Burns finished his talk with a discussion of the ramifications of mining these nodules which would involve complex technical, legal, environ mental, and political problems.  In his final slides Burns suggested that man may wish to return to conventional methods of recovering copper and nickel from the earth.  Questions by Hower (4), Roedder, Fleischer (2), Boyd, Callender, Hazen, Jones, and Helz provided a spirited discussion of the method of precipitation and incorporation of the transition metals into the nodules.


"Roger showed us some rocks from the sea

Rich in C-u, M-n, and F-e

At amazingly slow rates

They form from some chelates

By methods not obvious to me.


The meeting was adjourned at 10:22.  Attendance: 67.  Beer Money: $28.97

Respectfully submitted, David R. Wones


1022nd Meeting
March 23, 1977

President Boyd brought the meeting to order at 8:00 p.m.  Janet Pitman, U.S.G.S., Denver, was the only introduced guest of the evening.  The minutes of the 1021st meeting were approved as read.  Boyd, Davidson and Callendar discussed the motives behind the overturing of nodules by benthonic organisms.  Bruce Lipin announced the Field Trip on April 2.  Pres. Boyd requested the members of the society to return their glassware to the back of the hall at the end of each meeting.

"Mineral alteration in the Edwards limestone aquifer of Texas" was presented by Ruth Deike.  Showing the geologic setting with both maps and cross-sections Deike pointed out how the water from this aquifer is divided into a region of good water and region of sulfur rich brine or "bad water." Two test holes were drilled into the aquifer at Selma (good water) and Randolph (bad water).  Lack of core recovery in stratigraphic horizons in the Selma well are matched by dolomite, celestite, and organic rich horizons in the Randolph well.  Petrographic and mineralogic data amplified the differences between the two localities.  Using the Glen Rose formation as a marker, Deike determined a mass balance between the two sections.  This indicated that dolomite in the Randolph well is replaced by calcite and void space in the Selma well.  Finishing with a photograph of the Orion "horsehead," Deike hoped it was not a nebulous talk.  Questions by Margaritz (2) and Davidson revealed the definition of "grainstone."


"Aquifers near San Anton'

Are formed in carbonate stone

'The Randolph,' says Ruth,

'Has minerals uncouth,

Where the Selma has calcite alone?’"


Continuing the saga of the Edwards aquifer, F. J. Pearson, U.S.G.S,, Reston, in his paper, "Geochemical Evolution of Waters in the Edwards Limestone of Texas," presented hydrologic maps and the variations in the chemistry of the water from the good and bad zones.  Using carbon isotopes and dissolved ionic species, Pearson suggested that the bad water contained more chloride, no tritium and C14 as compared to the fresh water.  Intermediate waters could form either by mixing the two extreme waters or by a reaction of fresh water with the Edwards limestone.  Pearson demonstrated that the actual data support the reaction model.  This suggests that the boundary between the two waters should migrate south and east with time as fresh waters invade the aquifer.  Questions by Hower, Wones, Davidson, E-an Zen, Lipin, and Sellers produced statements concerning San Antonio's water supply and a definition of "cattle water."


In the Edwards, according to Joe

Both good and bad waters flow

The models need fixing

Reaction, not mixing

Is the way in which aquifers grow.


George Wetherill presented the final talk of the evening "Initial temperature of the earth," a topic of interest because the initial temperature of the accreting earth dominates the thermal history of that body.  Lunar studies have shown that the earth's satellite differ­entiated early, and the earth must also have had a high initial tempera­ture.  The relations between the mass of the earth, its sectional area, its density, and the relative velocities of fragments within the nebula constrain the time of accretion to about one hundred million years.  Chamberlain in 1904 showed that a body accreting in that period of time would cool by radiation.  Recent proposals by Ringwood and Cameron require a thousand years, which is too short a time.  Barrell, in 1917, and Safronov, in 1969, suggested accumulation by impact of large bodies which accords with the rate, and as the heat of impact in burial within the larger body, this process avoids radiant heat loss.  Wetherill reviewed Safronov's treatment of the dual accretion of two bodies, the so called runaway accretion model.  Wetherill then reviewed his variation of this process, the attritional remnant model, which differs from Safronov in the ratio between the escape velocity of the larger fragment and the relative velocity of the fragments.  The earth will be heated more than the moon, both will be heated heterogeneously, and will have heterogeneous initial compositions.  Some of the primordial chemical variations could be preserved.  Questions by Peck, Helz, and Norton, Boyd, Lipin, and Arth, reinforced Wetherill's position that the earth is complicated and that "God does not favor petrologists."


Safronov and Wetherill savor

Planetesimial modes of behavior

Heating rates skew

The chemistry, too,

"God does not, petrologists, favor."


Attendance: 57

Beer Money: $29.40

Respectfully submitted,

David R. Wones




1023rd Meeting

April 13, 1977

President Boyd brought the meeting to order at 8:09 P.M.  Maurice Wells, Univ. of London, J. W. Gruner, Univ. of Minn., Larry Woodford, West Va. Geological Survey, and C. L. Drake, Dartmouth, were all introduced as guests.  The minutes of the 1022nd meeting were approved as read.  Pres. Boyd informed the society of the deaths of three members, James Benn, Paul Bower, and Raymond Whitla.  New members elected to by the Council are Mary-Hill French and Andy Corcoran.  Bruce Lipin announced the May 7th field trip, and was asked by Jacobeen if this was a comment from on high.  Pres. Boyd announced the forthcoming field trip for Earth Science teachers, and asked if anyone know whether or not the Society had ever been incorporated.  Jacobeen requested judges for talks at the A.A.P.G. annual meeting

.Walter Parham presented the first paper of the evening, "Geologic limita­tions on Developing Countries." In a series of world maps and appropriate graphs, Parham indicated that the dominant population in the world, and the greatest increase in population is taking place in those parts of the world where the high rates of rainfall in both recent and Tertiary times have depleted the soils and left a residue of kaolinite, halloysite, allophane, and imogolite.  Decaying vegetation supplies most of the nutrients required for farming.  Agri­cultural processes of slash and burn, and the use of forest materials as fuel has left broad regions of unreplenished soil.  The cross-over of world food supplies and world food demand has been predicted for 1984.  Questions by Yochelson, Boyd, Jones, Lipin, Tracey, and Sheldon revealed that political processes move slowly and that only now are the various planning agencies such as AID beginning to make some progress toward implementation of agricul­tural methods which are planned around the total environment.


"Equatorial foodstuffs, says Parham,

Are a cause for world wide alarum

More rain than is needed

Leaves soils depleted

Unlike the midwestern far-m."


"Oceanic basement drilling: technical and scientific achievements" was the title of a paper by W. G. Melson in which he attempted to show the problems as well as the results of deep oceanic drilling.  The remarkable correlations between the geophysical observations with the oceanic stratigraphy have been done in spite of core recovery that is about twenty percent per hole.  Sowing results from the Famous region, Melson indicated how coherent models of the genesis and differentiation of oceanic basaltic magmas are being constructed.  Questions by Thayer, Drake, Boyd (2), Helz, Tracey and Jones discussed correlations with Iceland, the depth to the Moho, and oceanic Calderas.  Tracey and French inquired about using the Glomar Explorer to increase drilling capabilities in the ocean were answered by Benson.


"Melson showed us how all kinds of motion

Make deep drilling tough in the ocean.

We need to have more

Recovery of core

For a notion of sea floor commotion."


The visiting president of A.A.P.G., John Moody, presented in his paper, "Some New Tectonic Patterns," a discussion of shear faults, and how their intersections are expressed in the geology of the planet Earth.  Beginning with a catalogue of types of fault intersections, and examples of each, Moody proceeded on a tour of famous sedimentary basins around the world.  Small basins in the western U.S., were compared to larger basins on a continental scale, which culminated in a comparison between the Western Pacific and Western Atlantic margins.  Moody, after showing the similarities in topology and scale, admitted, "I don't know what this means.” Boyd, Drake, Mamula, and Dix discussed problems of intersections of defined plate boundaries with the linears described by Moody.


The collections of Moody's directions

Are selections of fault intersections

It's simply terrific

The Western Pacific

Has reflections of Atlantic complexions.


The meeting adjourned at 10:12 P.M. 

Attendance: 87

Beer Money:

Respectfully submitted

David R. Wones




1024th Meeting

April 27, 1977

President Boyd brought the meeting to order at 8:07 p.m.  John Rodgers, Yale Univ., Pete Robinson, U. Mass., were formally introduced as guests.  Rolfe Stanley, U. Vermont, Nick Ratcliffe, CUNY, and R. E. Zartman, U.S.G.S., Denver, arrived late and missed their introductions.  Boyd asked for a musical rendition of the limericks and the secretary obliged, singing them to the tune of "In China they never eat chile." The minutes were approved as sung (and read).  President Boyd announced that the Society had become incorporated as of Friday, April 22, 1977.  This was necessary to protect officers and members from legal harassament in the case of any incidents related to Society functions.  Boyd extended the Society's thanks to Jack Reed and Bob Sigafoos for the Earth Science Field Trip for teachers which they led for the Society.  President Boyd announced the May 7 field trip on the Environmental Geology of Fairfax County.  The A.A.P.G. needs volunteers to judge sessions at the A.A.P.G. annual meeting.

D. G. Thorsterson, the scheduled speaker was taken ill, and the talk "Geochemistry of the Fox Hills aquifer in western North Dakota lignite region" was cancelled.

L. W. Finger presented a paper by himself and R. M. Hazen, "High pressure crystallography: mantle-type phases in the diamond cell." The internal ordering of pyroxenes from Kakanui, New Zealand was used to reconstitute the thermal history of the mantle under New Zealand.  This work, done at one atmosphere would be even more powerful if done at high pressure.  The diamond cell, developed by Von Valkenburg and coworkers at NBS, was refined by Bassett at Univ. of Rochester, and further refined by Finger, Hazen and Bell at the Geophysical Lab to study crystal structures at high pressures.  The diamond anvils are supported by a steel ring with conical bores to accommodate x-ray diffraction.  A ruby chip is used as a barometer.  After showing x-ray diffraction patterns at one atmosphere and 27 Kb, Finger summarized the oxides and silicates that have been studied at high pressure.  He reviewed Hazen and Prewitt's work on a generalized equation of state, and showed how that interpretation was over simplified.  In summary, the work proves 1) crystal structures can be determined at high pressures, 2) fundamental studies such as low quartz are now under study, 3) anisotropic compressibility can be determined, and 4) structures are more regular at high pressures.  Questions by Hower (3), Zen (2), Boyd (2), Robertson (2), Chayes and Clarke demonstrated that we now have better and more compressibility data, but the resolution of mantle mineralogy is not yet accomplished.  Appleman suggested that, in order to obtain better diamords, they should "cultivate rich ladies, not N.S.F...."


Pressure studies by Finger and Hazen

In a diamond are truly amazin

The way minerals squeeze

Is accomplished with ease

Rubies measure how much with some lasin’.


Hans P. Eugster presented the final paper of the evening, "The Green River formation of the Fossil Syncline, Wyoming." Eugster felt that his friends Boyd, Jones, and Wones have conspired to break his record of twenty years of avoiding G.S.W. talks.  He urged us to study the surface of the earth as it has more importance to our future than either the surface of the moon or the opening of the Atlantic Ocean.  Using the Geol. Map of Wyoming, Eugster indicated the geographic location and geological relations of the Fossil Syncline with paleolake deposits of the Uinta and Green River basins.  Using a combination of sedimentology, geomorphology, mineralogy and chemistry, Eugster interpreted the Green River shales to result from low sedimentation rates in a carbonate dominated terrain.  A voice from the projection booth suggested that the Absaroka Volcanic field could have provided the sodium.  An earlier model interpreted the basin as the result of seasonal changes in CO2 content as a function of algal growth in a chemically stratified lake.  However, the presence of bottom living fish, mud cracks, bird tracks and coprolites, lead to a model of a broad mud flat with a central lake for the Uinta and Green River basins, whereas the Fossil Syncline area contained deeper water and did not have the large algal growths of the other two.  Fossil roots and regions of bioturbation support this model.


At Johns Hopkins, Hans Eugster, the Swiss,

Found buffers in bombs were remiss

His heart went aquiver

When he saw the Green River

And in Field Geochem he found bliss.


Come along, all, and listen to my tale,

About Hans Eugster and the Green River shale



It started out in nineteen fifty nine

With Charlie Milton and the Green River brine


Then he teamed up with a Bradly named Bill

Cyclic sediments formed the basin fill


Had to support all that vegetation

In the midst of precipitation.


Then out west the problems came

All the basins were't the same.


Hans has had a might fine time

Checkin" out the fossil syncline.


He found the tracks of the flamingo

Where cocepods and another thing grow.


He used all these sedimentary features

And a bunch of fossil creatures


So Eugster says, “It’s no mistake

The basin had a perennial lake.”


This forty minute talk went very fast

Unlike a twenty minute one four weeks past.


Attendance: 62

Beer money:

Respectfully submitted,

David R. Wones




1025th Meeting

May 11, 1977

President Boyd brought the meeting to order at 8:05 p.m.  Bruce Chappell, ANU, Russell Tiswess, USGS, and Dr, Federovsky, PAS were introduced as guests.  Pres. Boyd announced that the Society was Incorporated in the District of Columbia as of April 20, 1977.  Pleas from Mary Hill French and Mary Mrose concerning payment of dues were made.  Jacobeen requested more volunteers to act as judges at the A.A.P.G. annual meeting.  Neuman announced a symposium "Land Use Decisions" which would follow the A.A,P,G. meetings on June 16.  Bruce Lipin thanked Froelich and Obermayer for their field trip through Fairfax County In the fall a trip will be made to the Baltimore Gabbro by Crowley, Morgan and Lipin.

John Pojeta, U.SG.S., presented a paper, "The Origin and Early Diversification of Pelecypods" or "How to get a Bivalve from a Univalve".  The Society was shown how muse le scars and dentition serve to guide the way from univalve to bivalve in the early Paleozoic.  The story required contributions from Siberia, France, Australia, Antarctica, the Himalaya, Estonia, and has permitted the paleontologist to reconstruct this history without recourse to a "Black Box".  Questions by Boyd, Mary Hill French, Sellers, Dan Appleman (2), Jones, Deike, Towe (2) and Yochelson revealed that the dentition of the molluscs were used as filters, not chewers, that the structure of the soft filaments influence the shape of the dentition, that the ornamentation is related to the environment, and that the gap in Triassic diversity appears to be real,


Diversity shown on a graph-

More names than a poor scribe can quaff

Pojeta's rendition

Of fossil dentition

Filtered bivalves, not wheat, from the chaff.


William C. Luth of Stanford and E.R.D.A., demonstrated the difficulty of establishing crystal stratigraphy within igneous rocks front the study of thin section by mean of Ms talk, A Heretic's View of Volcanic Textures".  In a series of photomicrographs of minerals crystallized from synthetic melts at controlled cooling rates, Luth showed that hornblende and plagioclase form as hopper crystals which entrap melt which may then crystallize to yield inclusions of quartz, plagioclase, and K-feldspar within the earlier crystal giving the impression that such crystals predated tbe earlier one.  Questions by Luce, Lipin, Wones, Appleman, Robertson, Towe, Force, Nord, and Boyd established that Luth indeed felt these studies were applicable to natural occurrences with very slow cooling rates, and that H2O was not essential to the phenomenon.


The order of crystallization

Results from a rationalization.

Bill's crystals that hop-

Will they make us stop

Defining devitrification?


The final paper of the evening, "Uranium Solution-mineral equilibria, a disciple's new view" was given by Donald Langmuir of Penn State Univ.  Starting with the declaration that Uraninite, coffinite, and carnotite are the most common uranium minerals, Langmuir indicated that a better knowledge of the solubility of uranium complexes would aid uranium pros­pecting processing and solution mining.  As uranyl and uranous complexing involve changes in oxidation state, Eh and pH diagrams, coupled with the activity of silica, pCO2, and activity of phosphate will resolve most problems, Carbonate and phosphate complexes can greatly enhance the solubility of uranium in ground water.  Under more acid conditions fluoride complexes appear to be more soluble than had been previously recognized.  Solubility measurements of complex minerals such as autunite and tyuyamunite will enhance our understanding of Uranium transport.  Langmuir concluded that the diagrams he had shown were qualitative aids in understanding the fundamental calculations that required computers for their solution.  Questions by Hemley (2) Lipin, Peck, Jones, Appleman, Towe, Bevan French, Luce, and Freeborn (answered by Nord) revealed that much of the solubility work was Russian in origin, and that Vanadium is a useful prospecting aid,


Don's computer plotted pH

Of uraninite versus Eh.

Will Tyuyamunite

Replace bituminite

Or will we be colder than H——?


The meeting was adjourned at 9:58 P,M, Attendance: 86, 76, and 70,

Respectfully submitted,

David R. Wones




1026th Meeting

Oct. 12, 1977

The meeting was called to order by Vice-Pres. Dutro at 8:05 P.M.  Desmond McConnell, Cambridge Univ., Roger Strens,  Newcastle-on-Tyne, Peter Timofeez, Charles Onash, Univ. of Maryland, and Chris Onash, N.A.S.A. were' introduced as guests.  The minutes of the previous meeting were approved as read.  The following were elected to memberships:

Sharon Alshouse, Daniel Milton, Gordon Nord, Len Harris, Robert Row­land, William VanHorn, Frances Cisna, James Neiheisel, Thomas Holocek, Wendy Harrison, Shiv Sharma, Frank Spear, James Hoover, Charles Lawson, Brent Fabbi, and John Morgan.

Bruce Lipin reaffirmed the forthcoming trip to the Baltimore Gabbro on Nov.  19.

The society observed the deaths of Ray Oilman, Jesse B. Warr, Jr., Janet Hoffman and R.W. Schnabel.

An informal communication by John Reed, Jr. "Enigmatic Clay Balls along Reston Ave" exposed the Society to the ephemeral road cuts in Fairfax County, Virginia, where Triassic conglomerates have been temporarily exposed.  The clay balls occur 1 to 2 meters below the ground surface, also occur within the phyllites of the piedmont, and contain quartz pebbles set in a brown clay matrix.  Quartzite pebbles are observed to transect the boundary between the clay ball and the red sandstone matrix of the Triassic.  Reed described the phenomenon without any explanation, telling the Society, "You now know as much as I do".  Stewart observed that this was a new approach to "No working hypothesis".


Jack, found, on the road within

Some spheroids truly arrestin’.

The clay balls and quartz

His intellect thwarts

Now, ours, our colleague is testin’.


Curt Henderson informally communicated that an ad hoc group, called the Geostat Committee, had met to discuss supplementary sensors for the Landsat satellites.  He suggested that the synoptic, worldwide perspective permitted the construction of better base maps, better exploration strategies, and enhanced geologic interpretations.  To be added to the new Landsat satellites will be 10-20 meter resolution, geologically sensitive band imagery, side-looking radar and thermal infrared imagery.  The group requests additional suggestions from the geologic community,


From Geostat Curt brought the word

Now, by NASA, we all can be heard

With instruments optic

A viewpoint synoptic

We now can all share with the bird.


Nell Plummer, U.S.G.S. present a talk, "Mechanism of calcite dissolutions in CO2-water systems", summarizing his joint work with David Parkhurst and Tom Wigley, Plummer demonstrated how the rate of dissolution of calcite is dependent on pH, CO2, pressure and stirring rate, The complex relationships can be ana­lysed by three reactions involving l) calcium carbonate and hydrogen ion, 2) cal­cium carbonate and carbonic acid, and 3) a back reaction forming an absorbed layer of calcium carbonate.  An unidentified gentlemen asked about agitation rates and was informed that the experiments were all performed at a high rate of agitation.  The Vice-president, apparently thinking he was at a G.S.A. meet­ing brought the embryonic question period to a close,


A geochemist named Neil

Claimed that back reactions were real

The rate at which calcite

Dissolved, called for insight,

Two forward, one back, is the deal,


The second talk of the evening "Geothermal resource potential in the eastern U.S.” was presented by John K, Costain, V.P.I.&S.U.  Costain indicated how a combination of geologic, work headed by Lynn Glover III, geochemical work headed up by A. K. Sinha and geophysical work headed up by himself were evaluating the potential of geothermal waters warmed by the radioactive heating of plutons insulated under the Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments.  Twelve drill holes have been drilled, but only three had been completed for heat flow stud­ies at the time of the talk.  The slope of heatflow as a function of heat pro­duction is linear and identical to that observed for New England.  However, the total heat flow for New England is larger.  There appear to be realistic pros­pects under the coastal plain.  Questions by Cox Lipin, Stewart (2), Brett, Rubin, Salisbury, Robertson, Zen and an unidentified gentleman, revealed that the problems of economics, ownership, and energy tradeoffs were under study by ERDA that Ocean City's convention hall is heated by 103°C water from a 7800' drill hole, that 68°C is the highest temperature observed by Costain's group and that without judicious use, it might not be a renewable resource.


In the piedmont John Costain will show

That granites make hot waters flow,

In the broad coastal plain

He'll drill down again

Will our sources of energy grow?


Bevan French, NASA, presented a summary of the accomplishments of the Lunar program in the final talk of the evening, "What's New on the Moon?" The 843 pounds of returned material includes lunar basalts, anorthositic highlands material, and lunar soil (or regolith).  Lunar basalts lack the H2O and high K and Na values of terrestrial basalts, and formed at lower oxygen fugacities. Although the lunar highlands material is referred to as anorthosite, it is act­ually a mixture of gabbro, norite and diorites as well as anorthosite.  The brecciated soil forms as a result of multiple meteorite impacts of sizes ranging from micron to several hundred kilometers. 3 meters of soil represent 1.5 bil­lion years of time, therefore making the moon a valuable probe for changes in solar radiation with time.  The moon's interior is layered, but quite different from the earth.  As he described the proposed lunar polar orbiter experiment, French reminded us of the Frank Schairer dictum "The rocks remember".  A question by Robertson revealed that the ALSEP had been turned off after eight years of operation,


Apollonian trips to the moon

For science provided, a boon

The astronauts' toil,

Brought back rocks and soil

Bevan hopes we can return soon.


The meeting was adjourned at 9:55 P.M.  Attendance 84,

Respectfully submitted,

David R. Wones,




1027th Meeting

Oct. 26, 1977

Pres. Boyd opened the meeting at 8:11 P.M.  Although no visitors were announced at the usual time, it happened that Don Mabey, Frank Frischknecht, Bill Hanna, and Ken Watson, all of the U.S.G.S., Denver, were in the audi­ence, along with Dr. Moritani of the Geological Survey of Japan, Jean-Guy Schilling of the Univ. of Rhode Island, and Bill White of D.T.M.

The minutes were approved as read.

Pres. Boyd announced that a speakers fund was being set up from the extra contributions from the members.  This fund will be at the discretion of the Program Chairman. 

Pres.  Boyd announced the following slate prepared by the nominating committee:

Vice Pres. and Pres. Elect: Daniel Appleman          
2nd Vice President: Douglas Rankin

Secretary (Meetings): Bruce Lipin

Secretary (Council): Bill Davies

Treasurer: Peter Lyttle

Councilor: Norman Hatch, John Hower, Cristina Zen

Tina Zen reported the joke about jokes at a prison, then yelled out "No.2" and displayed the Society's Guidebooks, copies of which are still for sale.

Bruce Lipin announced that a field trip to the Baltimore Gabbro would take place on Nov. 19 led by Bill Crowley, Ben Morgan, and Bruce Lipin.

Lucy Force attempted to sound out the Society on the possibility of holding meetings nearer her residence, Reston, Va.  A straw vote indicated that 20 of the 75 present would not go to Virginia for a meeting, and that 25 of the 75 present would go to Virginia for a meeting.  Counting the seven guests, it appears that 23 members present were uncommitted, or perhaps un­certain as to the nature of the proceedings.

Mary Mrose, chairman of the membership committee, asked if anyone knew of any basis on which a member in Texas claimed life membership. No one had ever heard of such a policy.  Mary stated that "Don't anyone else try it" Stewart asked if the individual in question was named Powell.

The secretary announced that Carl Thornber, Kevin Bond, Charles M. Onasch, Gerald Richard, John Burney, Gall Fenster, Christine Onasch, and Lindsay Maness had been elected to membership by council on Oct. 26, 1977.

D. Kirk Nordstrom, Univ. of Virginia, presented the first paper of the evening, "The great California acid trip: weathering of sulfide ores in Shasta County", admonishing the society that, in spite of the title, the were no samples.  Showing pictures of California creeks that contain some water, algae, and a lot of bacteria in multicolored hues, Nordstrom, by means of geologic maps and cross sections, coupled with laboratory experiments and thermodynamic calculations, demonstrated that water Rowing through massive sulfide deposits contains large amounts of H2SO4, Fe2+, Zn, Cd, Al, and SiO2.  The water is so polluted that "anyone can walk on it".  Reaction rates are rapid between Fe3+ and FeS2.  The Bacteria, thiobacillus ferrioxodans, is the catalyst that converts Fe2+ to Fe3+.  The silica geothermometer appears to work to about 40°C, and the unusual Ca to Mg ratios are explained by sulfate equilibria.  Questions by Hemley, Boyd, Barton, Zen, Schilling, Patterson, Toulmin, Lee, and Pearson revealed that the supergene profile was described in company files and was unreliable, the bacteria live wherever the pH is less than 4, it will continue to weather for 1000 to 2500 years, the country rocks are Na-rich rhyolite, and that an H2O balance had not been calculated.


At Shasta ground waters flow through

Ores once mined for F-e-S-2;

The oxidans slime

Grows larger with time

As they chew on the iron plus two.


David Bell, an Oxfordian visiting at Washington and Lee Univ., presented an entertaining account of the "Geology of Ascension Island, South Atlantic".  After explaining that the Island had been originally named Concepcion, it was lost to Maritime records - a "spontaneous abortion" only to be relocated on Ascension Day, 1501.  An early pirate, Dampier, had located the only fresh water spring, Dampier's draft.  This spring, improved by American forces using dynamite, no longer exists.  Called a battleship by the British, and an air­craft carrier by the Americans, Ascension Island's water supplies are British catchment basins and American desalinization plants.  Trachyte is readily dif­ferentiated from trachyandesite by the nests of the wide-awake tern.  Using a geologic map, variation diagrams, histograms, and aerial photography, Bell indicated that the volcanic material is essentially bimodal in composition, and contains bimodal plutonic blocks.  Strontium isotopic studies suggest a primitive source for the nearby oceanic tholeiite, as well as the alkalic suite on the Island.  Because the island represents only 1% of the volcanic edifice, volume calculations for the trachyandesite and trachyte are spec­ulative.  Bell concluded his wit-filled presentation with a riposte at the secretary (Whose name was pronounced incorrectly):


This eminent fellow named Wones

A poetic talent he owns

His rhyming is agile

But his scansion is fragile

Perhaps he should stick to his stones.


Questions by Hazen, Stewart, E-an Zen (2), White, Simkin, and Hower re­vealed that trace element studies are under way, that there is no expectation of an imminent eruption, that the question of a residual silicic crust is not resolved, and that World War II aviators remarked:


"If I miss Ascencion

My wife gets a pension”


On Ascension's everything's right

A Pub crowns the cinder cone's height

From the wide awake terns

The Oxfordian learns  [corrected in pencil to “Oxonian”]

That andesite differs from trachyte.


The final paper of the evening, "Permian biogeography: the north vs. the south", delivered by Bruce Runnegar, Univ. of New England, proposed that the conflicts between proposed configurations of the continental crust as established by paleomagnetic studies and biogeographic pole determinations could be resolved by using cluster analysis or diversity gradients in order to redetermine the geographic poles in the Permian.  As this requires a great deal of work from a great many paleontologists, Runnegar suggested that the assignment of climate points to given fossil species could establish warm versus cold localities.  Using brachipods, fusilinids, and molluscs, a value of +13 was established for West Texas and one of -7 for Tasmania.  The conflict between pole positions remains.  A suggested solution is to shrink the earth to 75% of its present size during the Permian.  Questions by Lucy Force (2), Lipin, French, Hower (2), Whitmore, Hazen, Toulmin, Zen, and Stewart re­vealed a great concern within the Society over physical mechanisms which could produce a shrunken earth, and a statement, by the speaker that he does­n't believe it happened, so he does not have a mechanism.


Runnegar hoped to unravel

with fossiles, how continents travel.

A boolean scheme

makes all taxa seem

more convincing than Permian gravel.





1028th Meeting

Nov. 30, 1977

Pres. Boyd opened the meeting at 8:05 P.M.  Bob Hatcher, Fred Abert, Floyd Satins, and Helene Walsh were all introduced as guests.

The minutes were approved as corrected.  Frank Whitmore kindly reminded the Secretary, that no matter what it did to fragile scansion, people from Oxford were Oxonians, not Oxfordians.

The Society remembered J. W. Greig and Glenn Bartle, two members who have died recently.

Pres. Boyd announced the Annual Meeting for Dec. 14, 1977.

Greg Sohn presented the first informal communication of the evening.  After a lengthy introduction involving the population and publication statistics of those who work on ostracods, Sohn gave a history of Washington in which he showed that ostracods have been found in several public basins fed by the D.C. water supply.  Questions and comments by Rankin, Warren, and Appleman revealed that ostracods are alive and well in the nation's capitol.


The ostacodologist, Sohn

Finds life, on the mall, is full blown

Where the "tempos" once stood

Bug finding is good
In our water supply, they have grown.


The second informal presentation was given by Frank Whitmore, who revealed to us what recent Japanese trawlers had dredged up out of the ocean.  The rotting carcass, thought by a Japanese scholar to be a plesiosaur, was shown by Whitmore to have been most likely the partially decomposed carcass of a basking shark.


The vertebratologist, Frank

Showed a rotting carcass that stank

A Japanese chorus

Cried: "Plesiosaurus"

Like the shark, their theory is rank.


Charles Smith of the U.S. Geological Survey, presented his paper "Calcareous Nannoplankton: a little on a few of the small.”  After reviewing the morphology and the life history of the coccoliths, Smith demonstrated that the technology required to perform definitive studies involves electron microscopy as these creatures are survived by particles from 0.25 to l0μ in diameter.  The coccoliths have shown large variations in their diversity with time.  A well known group, the discoasters, evolved from the Paleocene to the Pliocene with a great increase in the effective surface area of their star shaped coccoliths, only to die out in the Pleistocene.  Several suggested species are actually the same form in different parts of its life cycle.  Finishing with a description of preparation procedures, Smith reminded the Society that 1 cc contains roughly 3 × 109 coccoliths (in chalk).  Questions, by George Helz and Boyd revealed that pentagonal symmetry is common, and that the fossil remains of these creatures can  be carried around the world four times before they dissolve.


The plates on a coccolith ball

Were shown, by Smith, to be small.

Although a disaster

O'ertook Discoaster

Nannoplankton, by the billions, still fall.


Jim Hercer, U.S. Geological Survey, presented a paper by himself and his coauthor, Charles Faust, "Application of a finite difference reservoir model, to geothermal steam production at Wairakei, New Zealand".  Mercer clearly established the assumptions he and Faust had made in preparing their models, such as a pure water medium of high porosity, D'Arcy's equations, and vertical equilibrium.  Maintain­ing mass balance, momentum, and energy, they developed the evolution of this geothermal field from its first well to the year 2000.  The program, has successfully described the historic field, even to the prediction of two phase production of (water plus steam occurrences).  There is a requirement for leakage into the system from the underlying Wairakei ignimbrite of hot water.  Robertson, Conant, Schneider, Doan, Zen, and Sohn revealed that there are pressure dropoffs of 300 to 350 psi, that tempera­ture measurements are made at depth in closed wells, and that steam is increasing with production.  The expected lifetime of the field is a function of extraction rate.  Questions by Doan revealed that the original assumptions concerning boundary flow seem to have little effect on the models


In computer programs are housed

The problems of Mercer and Faust

Wairakei will flow

The turbines will flow

No matter how boundaries are dou(w)sed.


The final talk of the evening "Subaerieal alteration of the late Cenozoic Sediments in the Middle Atlantic States" was presented by Jim Owens in behalf of his co-authors, M. M. Hess, E. J. Dwornik, and C. S. Denny, all of the U. S. Geological Survey.  By careful examination of the soil sections and mineralogy from New Jersey to central Virginia, Owens demonstrated that the mineralogy changes from feldspar and mica, through halloysite to gibbslte and goethite in the upper levels.  West of Chesapeake Bay these profiles are no longer preserved and are presumed to have been eroded away.  Questions by Tracey, Force (2), Newell, and Helz revealed that they had carefully used similar sediments of differing ages, and that chlorite was most likely to be detrital rather than a weathering product.


On the shores of Chesapeake Bay

Feldspar's transformed into clay

The profiles are best

On the east, not the west

Jim says "They're eroded away".


The meeting was adjourned at 10:l2 P.M.  Attendance 93.

Respectfully submitted,

David R. Wones,




1029th Meeting

December 14, 1977

Vice-president Dutro called the meeting to order at 8:05 p.m.  The minutes of the 1028th Meeting were read by acting secretary Dan Appleman.  Mrose corrected the minutes by pointing out that the list of new members, elected by council since the last meeting, had been omitted.  They are: Nabil Z. Boctor, Douglas G. Mose, John L, Berry, Donald H. Alexander, Jr., Diane C. Schnabel, David R. McQueen and George Farlekas.  The following were elected to membership on Dec. 14, 1977: Gennaro G. Marino, Paul C. Lyons, and David H. Speidel.

Dutro then introduced President F. R. Boyd, who presented his presidential address: "Kimberlites and the Mantle Sample".  Kimberlite occurrences in Lesotho and elsewhere contain a wide variety of ultramafic nodules which may represent samples of mantle rocks.  The wide variety of rock types present indicates great heterogeneity in the upper mantle: Eclogites, dunites (frequently mistaken for basalt), spinel & garnet peridotites, pyroxenites, etc. all are represented.  Certain nodule types have characteristic mineral assemblages which are particularly useful for estimating equilibration conditions, especially garnet lherzolites.  These appear to have equilibrated in the upper mantle at temperatures from 900°-1400° C and depths of 100-200 km.  They plot on depth vs. Temperature plots on a trend which may represent a segment of a fossil goetherm.  An inflection in the curve to higher temperatures at the deep end was previously interpreted as reflecting stress-heating from plate movements during the break-up of Gondwanaland.

Deeper samples are intensely sheared.  Rock mechanics studies indicate stresses of the order of 1 kb.  The time for eruption may be 4-6 hours, at a speed of about 50 km/m.  Recent studies by others have cost some doubts on the interpretation of the inflection, but disagreement apparently remains between petrology and geophysics.  The same inflection exists at the Premier mine (Pre- ) whereas Lesotho is only 60-90 m.y. old.  Silurian kimberlite data from Udachmaya does not show the inflection, but sticks to the classic geotherm.  Solomon Island data, on the other hand, is inflected at a shallows depth and agrees with the low-velocity zone interpretation.  Applications to prediction of diamond deposits are a possible result of these studies.  The meeting adjourned to prepare for the Annual Meeting to follow at 9:10 p.m.; Attendance;152.




To Lesotho went the Geochemists’ quest

Not for mere diamonds, but for pyroxene

Silicates make quick the heartbeat in the breast

Especially when garnet there fulfills the dream

Once made in Boyd and England's famous press

The claret mineral casts its spell on enstatite

When found with augite in threefold caress

On mantle P and T it sheds it light

Down deep beneath Lesotho lies the source

Whence eclogites were ripped and brought to view

Boyd and the Nixon, Peter, set a course

To yield a geotherm they think is true

Subcontinental like, until a steep deflection

Marks how this Africa has shifted its direction


[minutes unsigned, written by Dan Appleman]



Annual Meeting

The 85th Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of Washington, Inc., was called to order by President F. R. Boyd, Jr., at 9:30 P.M., Wednesday, December 14, 1977, in the Powell Auditorium.  Council Secretary William Davies attempted to read the minutes of the 84th Annual Meeting.  Amid rude remarks by Hanshaw (Bruce) and much merry ha ha, fueled no doubt by the previous brief intermission, the minutes were approved as read.  Moving right along, Davies recited the Council Secretary's report.  Highlights of the year, as he saw it, were (1) the near-extinction of Council Meetings (3 were held); (2) the switching of membership services from AGU to the triple-threat team of Bevan and Mary Hill French and International Graphics, saving the Society $1,200; and (3) the incorporation of the Society, making it eligible for tax-exempt donations.  As the remainder of Davies' statistics were themselves subject to large standard deviations, they will be suppressed here.

Well-known ringer Dan Appleman then read the Report of the absconding Meetings Secretary Wones: chiefly remarkable for the information that Wones had composed and delivered 43 limericks and one poem in heroic couplets, sung to the tune of "Chisholm Trail".  Attendance ranged from 62 to 110, averaging 77 for all 12 meetings.  35 papers and 6 informal communications were given; with an average of 8 discussants per paper.

Treasurer Bevan French restored some semblance of dignity to the meeting with his meticulous report on the Society's financial status.  This was quite satisfactory; operating expenses of $6,791 were almost completely offset by operating income of $6,232  plus interest on savings of $306, leaving a small total deficit of $274.  A special $2,000 contribution to the Society from AAPG was added to our Savings Account.  Increased membership contributions made it possible to establish a fund to help bring in outside speakers.  The new, cheaper and more efficient arrangement for handling the Society's business and membership affairs was described; a large saving to the members is expected.

Michael Fleischer, Chairman of the Auditing Committee which also included F. J. Flanagan, reported that the Treasurer's Report and records gave a complete and accurate statement of the Society's financial condition.  He complimented the Treasurer on his outstanding performance.

President Boyd read the report of the Public Service Committee for absent chairman Bruce Lipin.  Highlights included 3 membership field trips, 3 special field trips for school teachers, a seminar at the NAGT annual meetings, and Science Fair awards.  Lipin was congratulated for his vigorous and successful program.

Mary Mrose then presented the report of the Membership Committee, replete with statistics, correcting those announced earlier by the unfortunate Council Secretary.  Beginning the year with 1035 members, the Society at present had been reduced to 936 for a net loss of 99.  However, these 936 were all alive, a statement which could not be made about the previous membership list.  Mary was given a rousing vote of thanks for her hard work on the membership rolls.

The tedious but necessary business of the evening having been completed, Bob Neuman arose to present the report of the Awards Committee, which included Richard Hamburger, Juergen Reinhardt and/or Peter Lyttle, Bob Schneider and Pete Toulmin.  Neuman began with fulsome praise for Secretary Wones, noting that "his cogent summaries did more for some papers than their authors did".  The committee felt that this might have been the year of the Great Leap Backward in the geological sciences; when we were offered the "no working hypothesis" method, the "untenable conclusion" conclusion, and contemplation (of computer output) as a substitute for observation.  Withal, they found much to praise in Frank Whitmore's classic informal communication on the untimely demise of the last sea serpent, awarded the Great Dane Prize.

From the 35 papers presented during the year, the committee singled out David Bell's talk on the volcanic rocks and public houses of Ascension Island for special commendation.  Second prize went to Hans Eugster for his reconstruc­tion of the sedimentary environment of the Green River Formation.  First Prize was captured by George Wetherill for his talk on planetary origins.

At last, the long-awaited moment had arrived, and Dallas Peck arose to present the coveted Sleeping Bear Award.  Masterfully recalling past sins, he tried in turn Tina Silber, Dan Appleman, Dave Stewart and Lucy Force -- all were found wanting.  Finally, inevitably, he zeroed in on none other than the Bard of Blacksburg, Dave Wones.  Neatly skewering the absent Secretary with his own pen, he recited:

[blank space]

(Secretary's note: this universally admired limerick is presently lost in the wilds of Southside Virginia.  When and if it is retrieved, it will be inserted here for posterity.  Thank you.)

There being no new business, the meeting proceeded with the election of officers and councillors for the coming year.  The nominating committee, consisting of Bob Hazen, Bill Oliver and chairman Dave Stewart presented the following slate: President, Tom Dutro; 1st Vice-President, Dan Appleman; 2nd Vice-President, Doug Rankin; Meeting Secretary, Bruce Lipin; Council Secretary, Bill Davies; Treasurer, Peter Lyttle; New Councillors, Norm Hatch, Tina Silber, John Mower.  The carry-over councillors were Moto Sato, Doug Rumble and Ken Towe.  No further nominations were received.  The committee's slate was unanimously elected on a voice vote.  The gavel was then ceremoniously turned over to incoming President Tom Dutro.  After thanking Joe Boyd for his excellent presidential address, and Dave Wones for his unique minutes, Dutro struck terror into the hearts of the multitude by unleashing his ultimate weapon for the coming year -- a huge, accurate Time Clock which he vowed to use ruthlessly.  On this cheery note the meeting adjourned; attendance 152.

Respectfully submitted,

Daniel E.  Appleman

Temporary acting secretary